Anti Scale System – Technology

CWT Water Treatment

cwt technology
  • The CWT Vulcan anti-scale system is an eco-friendly water treatment system designed to protect your piping system and appliances against scale deposits and rust without the use of chemicals or salt.
  • The patented Vulcan Impulse technology is based on the natural principle of electrophoresis by using modulated electronic impulses to change the crystallization structure of Calcium and Magnesium held in suspension in the water flow. By doing this the Calcium and Magnesium ions lose the ability to clump and cannot form encrustations and are washed away in the form of long strings with the water flow.
  • The circuit board heart of the Vulcan in encased in an acrylic cast, an ideal insulating material, protecting it from humidity, temperature and dust and minimising circuit board burn-out, the most common malfunction in electronic components.
  • Vulcan water treatment units operate with customised flat isolated impulse bands made of copper with extremely high alloy purity that are designed to wrap snugly around the pipe. They are thin and flexible with minimized isolation, resulting in minimal space usage while maximising the direct-contact-ration to 97.5% to guarantee the best possible transfer output.
  • The right and left impulse bands act in harmony, triggering an alternating signal pattern with frequencies between 3000 and 32000 Hz which are sent ten times per second through the pipe into the water flow and form a frequency field that treats the water as it flows by.
  • Due to an alternation of the left and right signal sides, which means that only one impulse band is active at a time; the frequencies in the impulse field are overlapping. This multiplies the frequency patterns which again creates specific (harmonic) overtones
  • The Vulcan operates completely independently of velocity (water flow rate) and pressure and is installed on the outside of the pipes so no cutting in or disruptions to supply are encountered. Installation is via cable ties and is classed as a DIY project.

No Tools, No Maintenance, No Scale.

Technology behind the “Vulcan Effect”

Normally, when the dissolved Calcium and Magnesium ions in the water flow encounter changes in pressure, turbulence or increases in temperature they come out of solution and become suspended solids. The physical make-up of these Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) crystals have a positive charge in their centre and negative charges on their tips and therefore attract other crystals and enmesh with each other building solid deposits of what we refer to as scale.

vulcan effect
vulcan effect

The patented Vulcan Impulse technology modifies the crystallisation process of the Calcium and Magnesium using the natural process of electrophoresis. The “sticky” crystals become smooth and rod-shaped with a positive and negative end, so can only join end to end making long strings and cannot form encrustations. These strings are then washed away with the water flow as a fine powder

It is important for the mono-crystal strings created by the Impulse variation to grow as long as possible as the larger the crystal sting, the longer it takes for the modified crystal to degenerate. In warm water, the “Vulcan Effect” can last up to seven days while in cold water the effect the start to revert after two days.

Two simultaneous processes take place in untreated, hard water:

  1. Scale deposits from Calcium and magnesium crystals adhering to each other form encrustations and embed themselves to any available surface. This first process produces carbonic acid as a by product
  2. The carbonic acid simultaneously breaks down existing scale deposits (known as the natural resolving process). Because the building up of scale encrustations take place much faster than the resolving process, the end result is a net increase in scale encrustations in your pipes
vulcan effect formula

The Vulcan water treatment changes the balance between the scaling process and the resolving process. The mono crystals which can no longer form deposits results in the reduction of new scale build-up. The increased production of carbonic acid is now able to deal with any newly formed scale and the excess can now work on existing scale encrustations, slowly and carefully removing them the system.

Without Vulcan

without vulcan

With Vulcan

with vulcan

As soon as scale encrustations are established, iron and oxidised iron particles imbed themselves into the scale – resulting in the scales encrustations predominantly brown colour.


Once the iron particles are firmly attached within the scale, it will react adversely with any metallic piping structure or fitting via chemical corrosion which can lead to pitting corrosion which is considered to be more dangerous than uniform corrosion damage because it is more difficult to detect, predict and design against.


Another very serious problem of scale build-up in our water system is how it can affect our health. Scale, although appearing to be smooth is actually microscopically honeycombed and provides an ideal host and breading ground to bacteria, cysts, pseudomonas and other micro-organisms. Spores of the various organisms while not considered dangerous in their dormant state, once able to breed can become potentially dangerous to our health, especially the most vulnerable in our society, the elderly and infants.

scale buildup

As soon as a Vulcan unit is installed and starts breaking down the breeding grounds (i.e. the scale encrustations) bacterial contamination is greatly reduced or even fully removed.


Any excess carbonic acid that is not required to:


  1. Stop the formation of new scale
  2. Breakdown existing scale encrustations


Is then utilised to create a protective layer by coating the inside of metallic pipes with a metal carbonate layer (i.e. copper carbonate, iron carbonate etc.) to act against chemical attack, pitting corrosion or abrasive wear.